Opinion Headlines

(And see “Ukraine ” and “Putin” in index)

  1. Russia “Putin’s Latest Escalation” […support for Ukrainian … may lead to a bigger war] 7-17-2014
  2. Russia – Cuba “Putin Restores a Cuban Beachhead by Mary Anastasia O’Grady 7-28-14
  3. Russia “The Meaning of Russia’s Campaign in Ukraine” by Gen. Phil Breedlove 7-17-2014
  4. Russia Always Cheats on Arms Treaties. By Keith Payne et. al., […comply if convenient…] 8-19-14
  5. Russia. “Some Realism on Russia.” [… has done far too little to deter an invasion of Ukraine.] 8-16-14
  6. Russia. “The Russian Threat to NATO.” [A new report says the alliance isn’t ready…] 8-6-14
  7. Russia, Arms Control. [“The U.S. says Russia is cheating. So what will Obama do now?”] 8-11-14
  8. Russia. LTE. “Russia Isn’t Reacting Defensively to NATO and the EU.” 10-3-14
  9. Russia. “Putin’s Memory Hole.” [The Kremlin moves to ‘liquidate’ Russia’s oldest civil-rights group.] 10-15-14
  10. Russia. “The Russians Have Us Over a Rocket.” [The U.S. is dangerously dependent on Moscow for engines for military and space missions.] 10-24-14
  11. Russia. “The Run on the Ruble.” [Sanctions and a strong dollar create currency woes for Putin.] 11-3-14
  12. Russia. “The Ruble of Discontent.” [Russia’s falling currency could create political trouble for Putin.] 12-2-14
  13. Russia. Book review by Karen Dawisha of “Nothing is True and Everything is Possible” by Peter Pomerantsev. [Moscow looks a lot like the West: There are skinny jeans, wine bars and holidays abroad. But it’s all a fragile performance.] 12-9-14
  14. Russia. “Putin’s Ruble Rout.” [A wounded Kremlin may be more dangerous as Russian rates hit 17%.] 12-16-14
  15.  Russia. “Sanctioning Putin.” [Congress gives Obama the tools he needs, if he wants to use them.] 12-16-14
  16. Russia. Belarus’s Russian Problem. [The Putin alternative to the European Union stumbles on the ruble.] 12-24-14
  17. Russia. “Kremlin Hostage Takers.” [Putin jails the brother of opposition leader Alexei Navalny.] New York.
  18. Russia. “Father Yakunin’s Defiant Faith.” [A voice for Russian freedom – from the Soviets to Putin.] 1-2-15
  19. Russia. “Russian Aggression, Western Talk.” [Putin wages war on Ukraine, while Europe hopes to ease sanctions.] 1-24-15
  20. Russia. “Moldova Stands Up to Russia.” [A new leader looks to the West, but Russia may pull a Ukraine.] 2-24-15
  21. Russia. “Staring Back at Putin.” By Bret Stephens. […All this has been done for the sake of diplomatic pragmatism, of getting along with unavoidable Russia. The result has been the multiplication of outrages…] 2-24-15
  22. Russia. “The Murder of Boris Nemtsov.” [Another Putin opponent is killed by unknown assailants.] 2-28-15
  23.  Russia. “Putin’s Culture of Fear and Death.” By Garry Kasparov. [Boris Nemtsov threw his big body, big voice and big heart into the uphill battle to keep democracy alive in Russia.] 3-2-15
  24. Russia. “Cry, The Beloved Russia I Left Behind.” By Margarita Gokun Silver. [After many years I returned to a country that seemed headed toward democracy – until I looked closely.] 3-14-15
  25. Russia. “One Year After the Annexation, a Dark ness Falls Over Crimea.” By Mark P. Lagon [A campaign of censorship and intimidation targets Tatars and Ukrainians who do not endorse Kremlin control.] 3-18-15
  26. Russia. “Putin and the Dissident.” [The Kremlin gets revenge on a lone critic of its Crimea land grab.] 4-8-15
  27. Russia. “Countering Putin’s Information Weapons of War.” By Ed Royce. [Kremlin propaganda is far outstripping our ability to get the truth out. The U.S. needs a new approach. ] 4-15-15
  28. Russia. “Russia’s Master Plan to break the Trans-Atlantic Alliance.” By Vladimir Socor. [Putin is using negotiations about the future of Ukraine to gain a voice in decision-making for all of Europe. 4-21-15
  29. Russia. “Kerry Is So Very Nice to Putin.” [Easing sanctions if Russia settles for what it’s already grabbed.] 5-14-15
  30. Russia. “The Russians Are Coming, Again.” [Vladimir Putin violates another peace deal with Ukraine.] 5-29-15
  31. Russia. “The True Targets of Putting’s Travel Ban.” By Bernard-Henri Levy. [The list I’m on with 88 others is another strike at Russian Democrats.] 6-3-15
  32. Russia. “Putin Trolls the U.S. Internet.” By L. Gordon Crovitz. [A group in Russia uses social media to spread phony news stories and propaganda in America.] 6-8-15.
  33. Russia. “Putin Targets Pro-Western Bulgaria.” By Gary MacDougal. [Moscow doesn’t always need tanks and troops when trying to dominate its neighbors.] 6-29-15
  34. Russia. “Putin Creates a Fantasyland.” By Michael Khodarkovsky. [In Russia, history isn’t a matter of facts and figures, but of propaganda, to be rewritten by the regime.] 8-19-15
  35. Russia. “Putin Squeezes the Baltics.” [Russia gives a kidnapped Estonian 15 years. NATO yawns.] 8-20-15
  36. Russia. “The Real Arctic Threat.” By John McCain. [Obama focuses on global warming while Putin’s neo-imperialist dreams continue to spread north.] 9-2-15
  37. Russia. “Putin Is Winning The Ukraine Cease-Fire.” [The West pressures Kiev to abide by a deal the Kremlin violates.] 9-3-15
  38. Russia. “Putin’s Syria Play.” [Obama’s vacuum helps Russia reverse 70 years of U.S. Mideast policy.] 9-14-15
  39. Russia. “Belarus Bends to Putin.” [“This is another strategic setback for NATO and the European Union in Eastern Europe.”] 10-9-15
  40. Russia. “Meanwhile, Putin Is Also Arming Iran.” By Daniel Z. Katz. [The sale of the S-300 advanced surface-to-air missile system is a sign of things to come.] 10-12-15
  41. Russia. “The Truth About MH17.” [Failing to punish Putin gives him a veto over use of other air space.] 10-14-15
  42. Russia. [Bookshelf / book review by Joshua Yaffa.] “The Leader Russia Deserves.” [“Imperial Gamble” by Marvin Kalb.] [Hundreds of years of history – especially the experience of the Soviet century and the trauma that followed – have made Putin inevitable.] 10-15-15
  43. Russia. “Back in the U.S.S.R.” [Russia reverts to Cold War-type with its doping of athletes.] 11-11-15
  44. Russia. “Turkey Shoots Down a Paper Tiger.” By Homan W. Jenkins, Jr. [His neighbors don’t find Mr. Putin quite as impressive as some Americans do.] 11-25-15
  45. Russia. “The Russian State of Murder Under Putin.” By David Satter. [Let the Litvinenko murder inquiry inspire more investigations of the Kremlin’s ugly tactics.] 1-22-16
  46. Russia. “How to Bog Down Putin in Syria.” By Seth G. Jones. [Moscow’s aid has helped Assad, but the history of insurgencies shows that this fight is far from over.] 2-25-16
  47. Russia. “The Arctic Front in the Battle to Contain Russia.” By Scott Borgerson and Michael Byers. [Given Putin’s threat, the Obama-Trudeau talks need to address the U.S.-Canada Northwest Passage dispute. 3-9-16
  48. Russia. “The Financial Bungler in the Kremlin.” By Andy Kessler.   [Long and wrong on energy, with a currency bet so bad his nickname should be Vlad the Impaler.] 3-10-16
  49. Russia. “Putin’s War on Prayer.”  [A Russian law restricts evangelizing outside registered churches.]  7-14-16
  50. Russia. “Russia’s Doping Scandal. “ [A new report finds that Olympic cheating was state policy.]  7-19-16
  51. Russia. “Putin and Those Democratic Emails.”  [Clinton blames Russia for the DNC leak.  Pre-emptive inoculation?]  7-26-16
  52. Russia. “Miracle on Water.”  [Honest athletes show more courage than Olympic organizers.]  8-10-16
  53. Russia. “The Russians and Aleppo.”  [Obama stands by as a Moscow-Tehran-Damascus axis forms.] 8-18-16  (See 8-12 here)
  54. Russia. “Putin’s Ukraine Games.” [Moscow is exploiting Western apathy to escalate the conflict.] 8-24-16
  55. Russia. “Obama and the Russia Hacks.” [Why shouldn’t Putin believe he can get away with it?] 9-8-16
  56. Russia. “What Can the Next President Do About Russia?”  by Robert D. Kaplan.  [Moscow sees its ‘near abroad’ as one operational theater.  To end the Syria stalemate, exert NATO pressure in Eastern Europe.]  10-17-16
  57. Russia. “How the Kremlin Sees Trump’s Re-Reset With Moscow.”  By Sohrab Ahmari. [“We consider Trump the American Putin,’ says a leading Russian thinker – meaning ‘a conservative nationalist’ and a ‘realist.’]  11-19-16
  58. Russia. “From Moscow, with Provocation.”  [Vladimir Putin deploys nuclear-capable missies on Poland’s doorstep.]  11-25-16
  59. Russia. “Russia’s Syria Doublespeak.”  [Putin lets Palmyra fall to ISIS while helping Assad take Aleppo.]  12-13-16
  60. Russia. “Trump’s Russian Reset.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [This time, the aim should be to hold Putin’s hand until he gives up power.]  12-14-16
  61. Russia. “The U.S.S.R. Fell – and the World Fell Asleep.”  By Garry Kasparov.  [Twenty-five years after the Soviet Union ceased to exist, plenty of repressive regimes live on.  Today, the free world no longer cares.]  12-17-16
  62. Russia. “Exxon vs. Russia Illusions.” By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [The oil giant’s Rosneft joint venture was a product of the Obama ‘reset.’]  1-11-17
  63. Russia. “Russia Questions for Rex Tillerson.”  By David Satter.  [New revelations about an opposition leader’s murder and bombings in Boston and Russia.]  1-11-17
  64. Russia. “Putin’s Bad Ukraine Deal.”  “The Russian strongman wants the U.S. to ratify its territorial gains.] 2-3-17
  65. Russia. “A Poisoning in Moscow.” [A critic of the Kremlin and Journal contributor fights for his life.] 2-4-17
  66. Russia. “Russia convicts a Democrat.” [Vladimir Putin bars his main electoral rival from running.] 2-9-17
  67. Russia. “Trump’s New Start With Russia May Prove Better Than Obama’s.” by John Bolton. [The new president’s reported disdain for his predecessor’s arms deal is an encouraging sign.] 2-13-17
  68. Russia. “Liquidating The Opposition, a Very Expensive Poison.” by Luke Harding. (Bookshelf by Daniel Johnson.) [Polonium 210 is 100 billion times as toxic as cyanide. It’s use as a murder weapon was authorized at the highest levels of the Kremlin.] 2-23-17
  69. Russia. “The Ultimate Trump-Putin Deal.” By Mikhail Khodorkovsky. [Could the White House pull Russia out of its spiral by negotiating a peaceful transition of power?] 3-9-17
  70. Russia. “Russia’s Arms Treaty Violation.” [The U.S. goes public about Putin’s nuclear missile deployment.] 3-13-17
  71. Russia. “Russia’s Nuclear Menacing Shouldn’t Go Unanswered.” By William Lloyd Stearman. [The U.S. ought to match Moscow’s buildup to show Putin he can’t possibly win a new arms race.] 3-17-17
  72. Russia. “We Built the Russia Sanctions to Last.” By Edward Fishman. [Europe has stayed united behind them, and now Merkel seems to have brought Trump along.] 3-21-17
  73. Russia. “We Need a ‘Pentagon Papers’ on Russia.” By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr. [Trump and his associates are caught up in the backlash over the West’s long tolerance of Putin.] 3-25-17
  74. Russia. “The Deal Trump Shouldn’t Make With Russia.” By Mark Helprin. [Trading Ukraine for Syria would legitimize Moscow’s conquest and endanger Europe’s security.] 3-30-17
  75. Russia. “How Trump Became a Russia Skeptic.” By Adrian Karatnycky. [The conventional wisdom about a Kremlin-friendly White House is dated. Reality forced a change.] 4-4-17
  76. Russia. “Don’t Worry, It’s Worse for Putin.” by Holman W. Jenkins, Jr. [Though idiocy and partisanship are rampant in D.C. it’s no ‘win’ for Russia.] 4-5-17
  77. Russia. “Back in the U.S.S.R.” (Bookshelf by Benjamin Shull) “Who Lost Russia?” by Peter Conradi. [For Putin, NATO expansion was Exhibit A in the West’s plan to encircle Russia, a perception crystalized by Ukraine’s Orange Revolution.] 4-14-17
  78. Russia. “From Russia With Chaos.”  By David Satter.  [Vladimir Putin doesn’t support Donald Trump.  He supports American political paralysis.]  6-13-17
  79. Russia. North Korea.  “Putin’s Assist for North Korea.”  [Russia sends a message to Trump by nixing a U.N. resolution.]  7-7-17
  80. Russia. “A Russia Sanctions Trap.”  [A Senate provision could hurt U.S. oil firms working outside Russia.]  7-11-17
  81. Russia. “Putin’s Dangerous New Ukraine Doctrine.”  By Adrian Karatnycky.  [Russia tries to absorb breakaway regions while stepping up terror in Kiev and elsewhere.]  7-14-17
  82. Russia. LTE.  “Congress Is Right to Boost Russia Sanctions.”  7-28-17
  83. Russia. “Russia Sanctions Breakthrough.”  [The GOP restrains Trump, unlike Democrats on Obama and Iran.]
  84. Russia. “Putin’s Advances in Syria.”  {The Kremlin solidifies its strategic gains for backing Assad.]  7-31-17
  85. Russia. “A Trump Card in Ukraine.”  [Lethal aid would raise the cost of Putin’s military aggression.]  8-2-17
  86. Russia. “Russia’s Cold War with Scandinavia.”  By Azita Raji. [The Kremlin prepares military maneuvers in the Baltic, as Sweden and Finland sweat.]  8-29-17
  87. Russia. “China and Russia’s Dangerous Entente.”  By Alexander Gabuev. [They have developed a good-cop/bad-cop routine that will frustrate efforts against North Korea.]  10-5-17
  88. Russia. “The Origins of Putin’s Land Grab.”  (Bookshelf by Jennifer Siegel) “Lost Kingdom.”  By Serhii Piokhy.  [Throughout history, Ukraine’s identity was at the mercy of Russian leaders, who viewed the western borderland as a key to their legitimacy.]  10-11-17
  89. Russia. “Lamenting the Motherland.”  (Bookshelf by Stephen Kotkin.) “The Future is History.”  By Masha Gessen.  [Examining the psyche of modern Russia, through the eyes of those born at the end of the Soviet era and who grew up at a time of hope.]  10-19-17
  90. Russia. “The Coming Russia Bombshell.”  By Kimberley A. Strassel.  [ A judge may order Fusion GPS to give House investigators its bank records.]  10-27-17
  91. Russia. “Trump’s Present for Putin.”  [Helping the Ukrainians defend themselves against the Russians.]  12-22-17.
  92. Russia. “Javelin Missiles for Ukraine.”  [Russia is unhappy the U.S. is selling antitank weapons to Kiev.]  12-26-17
  93. Russia. “Democracy, Putin-Style.”  [The Kremlin fears Alexei Navalny is too popular, bars his candidacy.]  12-27-17
  94. Russia. “Moldova Needs the West’s Help Against an Aggressive Russia.]  12-28-17
  95. Russia. “Coreligionists in Kleptocracy.” By Holman W Jenkins, Jr. [What Russia and Iran have in common is someday their people will say ‘enough.’] 1-10-18
  96. Russia. “Fight Putin With Fire.” By Janusz Bugajski. [Moscow reportedly plans to interfere with another U.S. election. Russia has an election coming up too.] 2-14-18
  97. Russia. “Romney’s Russia Vindication.” [He was right about the Kremlin in2012, not that Democrats admit it.] 2-20-18
  98. Russia. “Russia’s Trail of Poison.” 3-8-18
  99. Russia. “Will Putin Ever Leave? Could He if He Wanted? (The Weekend Interview with Stephen Kotkin by Tunku Varadarajan ) [A Stalin biographer contemplates Russia’s weakness today, which makes its current ruler such a threat to the West.] 3-10-18
  100. Russia. “Why is Russian Gas in Boston Harbor?” by Drew Johnson. [Environmentalists’ war on fossil fuels helps Vladimir Putin.] 3-13-18
  101. Russia. “All of Putin’s Poisons.” [What other chemical weapons does Moscow possess?] 3-13-18
  102. Russia. “Vladimir Taunts the West.” [Spy expulsions and small-scale sanctions won’t deter Moscow.] 3-16-18
  103.   Russia. “Putin’s Key Oligarch Escapes Sanctions.” By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr. 3-17-18
  104. Russia. “How to Answer Russia’s Escalation. By David Satter. [In response to a chemical attack in the U.K., impose sanctions directly against President Vladimir Putin.] 3-19-18
  105. Russia. “Trump’s Russia Blacklist.” [New sanctions target Putin’s cronies in the pocketbook.] 4-10-18
  106. Russia. “How to Stop Putin’s Mafia.” By Mikhail Khodorkovsky. [The real enemy is a group of about 100 beneficiaries of the regime and several thousand accomplices.] 4-23-18
  107. Russia. “From Russia With No Love Lost.”  (The Weekend Interview with Bill Browder by Tunku Varadarajan)  [The anti-Putin crusader on his disillusionment with Moscow’s leader and his tangles with the man behind the Trump dossier.]  5-12-18
  108. Russia. “A Crackdown on Russian Money.” [British MPs call for sanctioning Putin’s oligarchs in London.] 5-26-18
  109. Russia. “Russia Murder Inc.” [A faked murder in Ukraine highlights the risks to dissidents.] 5-31-18
  110. Russia. “Putin’s Success Masks Russian Weakness.” By Walter Russell Mead. [Things are breaking his way. But if China is a tiger, Russia is a pussycat on stilts.] 6-5-18
  111. Russia. “The Russia Smoke Bomb.” [Trump plays into Putin’s strategy with his G-7 taunt.] 6-9-18
  112. Russia.  “When Russia Invaded Georgia.”  By Mikheil Saakashvilli.  [It happened in 2008 and foretold a decade of Putin’s adventurism.]  8-8-18
  113. Russia.  “United Against Putin’s Poison.”  [The U.S. invokes a chemical warfare treaty to sanction Russia.] 8-9-18
  114. Russia.  “When Russian Democracy Died.”  By David Satter.  [Boris Yeltsin abolished the Parliament 25 years ago.  That helped pave the way for Putin’s dictatorship.] 9-21-18
  115. Russia.  “Russia Wages a Religious War Against Ukraine.”  By Michael Khodarkovsky.  [The Kremlin tries without success to dominate the Eastern Orthodox Church.]  10-1-18
  116. Russia. “Cyber Criminals in the Kremlin.” [Putin’s spies are exposed in cases around the world.] 10-5-18
  117. Russia.  “Russian Pensions and the Risk of War.”  By Leon Aron.  [Putin raises the retirement age, inflaming the street.  Will he find an external enemy to shore up support?]  10-17-18
  118. Russia.  “The Forgotten Soviet Famine.”  By Sarah Cameron.  [We remember what Stalin did to Ukraine but not Kazakhstan.]  11-2-18
  119. Russia.  “Ways to Make Putin Pay for Ukraine.”  11-28-18
  120. Russia.  “Ukraine Is Moscow’s Guinea Pig.”  By Adrian Karatnycky.  [Russia uses its neighbor to hone its aggressive tactics and test whether rivals are willing to fight back.]  11-29-18
  121. Russia.  “Schumer’s Russia Sanctions Gambit.”  [There’s no evidence to doubt the Treasury’s negotiation with Russia.]  1-15-19
  122. Russia.  “Russia’s Future Is Rapped in an Enigma.”  By Konstantin Dobrynin.  [Musicians have helped spur an antiestablishment moment that could loosen Putin’s grip on the culture.]  1-15-19
  123. Russia.  “Maduro Is Putin’s Man in Caracas.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [Russia wants to suppress Latin America’s energy production.]  1-29-19
  124. Russia.  “Russia’s Venezuelan Power Play.”  [Putin is testing Trump by sending troops to back up Maduro.]  3-26-19
  125. Russia.  “On the Russian Front in Ukraine.”  By Adam O’Neal.  [A visit to Mariupol shows why the country elected an outsider comedian – and the hard task he faces.]  4-26-19
  126. Russia.  “The Kremlin Tightens Its Fist.”  By Irwin Cotier and Katrina Lantos Swett. [Putin uses the legal system as a means of repression.  The West should respond with heightened sanctions.]  4-29-19
  127. Russia.  “Can China Dislodge Russia in Central Asia?  By Walter Russell Mead. [In one former Soviet republic, Beijing’s blandishments get it only so far.]  4-30-19
  128. Russia.  “Collusion of Russian Disinformation?”  by David Satter.  [How Moscow manipulated US. Media, lawmakers and intelligence services into propagating a wild theory.]  5-1-19
  129. Russia.  “Russian Collusion in Venezuela.”  [Why does Donald Trump believe Putin instead of his advisers?]  5-8-19
  130. Russia.  “Russia and the 5G Cancer Scare. “ by Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [America’s cell-phone industry couldn’t be happier about the Kremlin’s meddling.]  5-15-19
  131. Russia.  “Hold Russia Accountable for MH17.”  By David Satter.  [European investigators charge four men with murder, but evidence of Russian guilt is powerful.]  6-27-19
  132. Russia. “Putin’s Chernobyl.” [A mysterious explosion may be evidence of a new nuclear missile] 8-13-19
  133. Russia. “America Needs Dialogue With Moscow.” By Jon Huntsman. [Sanctions have their place, but some of them are undermining trust without serving their purpose.] 10-8-19
  134. Russia. “Open Skies Help Keep the Peace With Russia.” By George P. Shultz, William J. perry and Sam Nunn. [Ike’s idea, codified in a 1992 treaty, is still a good one. The U.S. shouldn’t abandon the pact.] 10-21-19
  135. Russia. “A Dissident Outlives Soviet Communism.” By Juliana Geran Pilon. [His book documenting Western complicity didn’t find a U.S. publisher for almost 25 years.] (“Judgment in Moscow,” subtitled: Soviet Crimes and Western Complicity.” By Vladimir Bukovsky.) 10-29-19
  136. Russia. “The Kremlin Tightens Its Grip.” By Irwin Cotler and Yonah Diamond. [A new law can label a Russian a ‘foreign agent’ for reporting or posting on Facebook.] 12-23-19
  137. Russia. “Putin’s American Prisoner.” [Paul Whelan has spent a year behind bars on dubious charges.] 12-28-19
  138. Russia. “Doing a Deal With the Devil.” (Bookshelf by Douglas Smith.) “Between Two Fires” by Joshua Yaffa. [Under Putin the state share of the economy has grown to more than 60%. Russians have to play the government’s game to get what they want.] 1-15-20
  139. Russia. “A Lust For Suffering.” (Bookshelf by Leon Aron.) “The Return of the Russian Leviathan.” By Sergei Medvedev. [Putin’s domestic policies, says a Russian critic, are motivated by revenge, self-pity and a search for those who betrayed the wonderful U.S.S.R.] 3-18-20
  140. Russia. “A Clear Decision on Open Skies.” [There’s no sense in staying in a treaty that Russia openly violates.] 5-22-20
  141. Russia.  “From Russia With Malice.”  [Trump wants Putin in the G-7.  An American gets 16 years in jail.]  6-16-20
  142. Russia.  “The Poisoning of Alexei Navalny.”  [Can Trump now finally stop inviting Putin to rejoin the G-7?]   9-3-20
  143. Russia.  “Russia and the Soviet Union:  Solzhenitsyn Knew the Difference.”  By Ignat Solzhenitsyn.  [‘I can’t ally myself with the Communists,’ my father said, but not ‘with our country’s enemies either.’]   10-24-20
  144. Russia.  “Joe Biden’s Old Russia Start.”  [Criticism on Navalny but a gift to Putin on nuclear arms control.]   2-2-21
  145. Russia.  “Alexei Navalny’s Cause.”   2-3-21
  146. Russia.  “Biden Should Follow His ‘Killer’ Instinct.”  By David Satter.  [He noted the truth about Putin, as no predecessor has done.  Will he back up his words with action?]  3-22-21
  147. Russia.  “A Bad Day for Vladimir Putin.”  [Joe Biden’s sanctions will bite, and they come at the right time.]   4-16-21
  148. Russia.  “The Fate of Alexei Navalny.”  4-19-21
  149. Russia.  “Why Would Biden Want a Summit With a ‘Killer’?”  [The new administration has changed the U.S. tone on Russia, but that’s worth nothing without action.]   4-19-21
  150. Russia.  “Russia’s Hackers Unwisely Mess With U.S. Gas Prices.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [A strange apology from DarkSide indicates where crime-for-profit ends and national security begins.]  5-15-21
  151. Russia.  “The Open Skies Treaty Closes.”   6-1-21
  152. Russia.  “Why Biden Is Meeting With Putin.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [Four U.S. presidents have found confronting the Russian leader more trouble than it’s worth.]   6-5-21
  153. Russia.  “Biden’s Red Lines for Russian Hackers.”  By Homan W. Jenkins, Jr.  [Is the U.S. finally starting to exploit the terminal decadence of Moscow’s ex-KGB regime?]   6-19-21
  154. Russia.  “Putin Tests Biden’s Cyber Vow.”  [When a U.S. President draws a clear red line, he has to enforce it.]  7-8-21
  155. Russia.  “Why Putin Still Covets Ukraine.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [A 5,000-word essay by the strongman explains his thinking.  It pays to listen.]   7-20-21
  156. Russia.  “Putin’s Belarus Offensive.”  [The Kremlin ally uses migrants and energy against Western Europe.]  11-13-21
  157. Russia.  “The Shock of Reform.”  (Bookshelf by Joshua Rubenstein.  “Collapse: The Fall of the Soviet Union.”  By Vladislav M. Zubok.  [The rush of intellectual and creative freedom couldn’t be contained, but gratitude turned into anger as the Soviet economy faltered.]  11-18-21
  158. Russia.  “Deterring Putin in Ukraine.”  [The Russian is probing to see if the U.S. really would push back.]  12-2-21
  159. Russia.  “Biden’s Only Honorable Course on Ukraine.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [If the U.S. wavers, Russia will benefit, and Iran and China will capitalize.] 12-7-21
  160. Russia.  “The fight for Ukraine From Putin’s View.”  By Wm. A. Galston. [He sees Russia’s loss of the country as a historic injustice.  So how far will he go?]  12-8-21
  161. Russia.  “Deter Russia by Arming NATO Allies.”  By William Schneider Jr.  [Moscow is challenging Europe’s postwar security system, and not only by threatening Ukraine.]   12-9-21
  162. Russia.  “U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Everybody but Putin.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [Western governments still shrink from telling the truth because it might destabilize his regime.]   12-11-21
  163. Russia.  “Crisis in Ukraine Is a Winner for Putin.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [He divides European and U.S. opinion, and Russians like that he’s in the world spotlight.  12-14-21
  164. Russia.  “Vladimir Putin Names His Price.”  [Maybe he won’t invade Ukraine if Biden grants his security wishes.]  12-18-21
  165. Russia. “The Strategic Case for Risking War in Ukraine.”  By John R. Deni.  [An invasion would be a diplomatic, economic and military mistake for Putin.  Let him make it if he must.]  12-23-21
  166. Russia.  “Is the Crisis in Kazakhstan the Rebirth of the Soviet Union?”  by John Bolton.  [The West needs to be firm as Putin seeks to expand Moscow’s control over neighboring states.]   1-10-22
  167. Russia.  “U.S. Mistakes Fed Putin’s Ukraine Temptation.”  By Ric Grenell and Andrew I. Peek.  [At the rate he’s going, Biden will be making concessions to Russia for the rest of his term.]   1-11-22
  168. Russia.  “Putin Waging War on Europe.”  By Bernard-Henri Levy.  [His officials and media supporters have started talking openly about ‘military confrontation.’]   1-19–22
  169. Russia.  “Deterrence Message to Moscow.”  [The U.S. can’t stop a Ukraine invasion, but it can raise the cost.]   1-25-22
  170. Russia.  “Putin’s Threat to Ukraine Isn’t Limited to Invasion.”  By Jillian Lay Melchior .  [By stoking unrest and chaos, Russia could set the stage for a puppet regime without the costs of war.]  1-25-22
  171. Russia.  ““Biden Puts More Military Muscle Into NATO’s Russia Response.”  By John R. Deni.  [Washington is right to consider activating an emergency force allies have been reluctant to use.]  1-27-22
  172. Russia.  “Putin Is Already in Cuba and Venezuela.”  By Mary Anastasia O’Grady.  [Now Russia and China are helping Maduro militarize the Colombian border.]   1-31-22
  173. Russia.  “Putin Targets Germany, NATO’s Weakest Link.”  By Peter Rough.  [Biden should encourage Berlin to come off the sidelines and stop giving Moscow a pass.]  2-7-22
  174. Russia.  “The U.K. Can Hit Putin Where It Hurts.”    2-10-22
  175. Russia.  “The U.K. Stands With Its Central European Allies.”  By Boris Johnson.  [Every nation has the right not to have its foreign policy and alliances dictated at gunpoint.]   2-10-22
  176. Russia.  “Will the West Heed Poland’s Warnings on Russian Aggression?”  by Adam O’Neal.  [Some consider Warsaw alarmist, but the Poles have frequently been right about their large neighbor.]  2-12-22
  177. Russia.  “Don’t Forget Putin’s Domestic Critics.”  2-17-22
  178. Russia.  “Why Putin Is Outfoxing the West.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [Russia’s president is willing to take risks his opponents would never consider.]  2-22-22
  179. Russia.  “Cracks in Western Resolve on Russia.”  [Italy blinks on tough sanctions at exactly the wrong moment.]   2-22-22
  180. Russia.  “Containing Russia, Old School.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr. [The US. and allies have lots of pressure points on Putin, beyond sanctions.]   2-23-22
  181. Russia.  “Weakness at Home Drives Putin to Invade Ukraine.”  By David Satter.  [He’s trying to re-create the ‘Crimea effect,’ in which Russians felt strong and ‘forgot their worries.’  2-23-22
  182. Russia.  “How to Beat Putin With Energy.”  By Kenneth C. Griffin and Niall Ferguson.  [America and its allies can wean Europe off its dependence on natural gas imported from Russia.]  2-24-22
  183. Russia.  “A Rogue Russia Tries to Reset the World Order.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [If the U.S. response is purposeful, creative and wise, Putin’s campaign will ultimately fail.]   2-25-22
  184. Russia.  “The Oligarchs Start to Squeal.”  2-28-22
  185. Russia.  “The Economic Price of Putin’s Invasion.”  [Western markets held up, but Russia’s financial system takes a beating.]   3-1-22
  186. Russia.  “As Russia Invades Ukraine, the West May Be Getting Serious.”  By Gerard Baker.  [Even Germany commits to a major increase in defense spending and weaning itself off Russian energy.]   3-1-22
  187. Russia.  “The U.S. Shouldn’t Interfere While Putin Loses in Ukraine.”  By Mark Hannah.  [He has behaved as if he’s blind to the true stakes and likely consequences of the conflict he sought.]  3-1-22
  188. Russia.  “The Putin End Game.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [His regime is destroying itself over a fictional threat of NATO aggression.]  3-2-22
  189. Russia.  “Scholz and Biden Stand Tall Against Russia.”  By Wm. A. Galston.  [As Germany begins its rearmament, the U.S. must continue to help Ukraine’s resistance.]   3-2-22
  190. Russia.  “Britain’s Labour Party to the Defense.”  3-2-22
  191. Russia.  “The Terrifying Paradox of Russian Weakness.”  By Gerard Baker.  [For a country shaped more than most by war, a long fight increases the incentive to escalate.]  3-8-22
  192. Russia.  “Escrow Russia’s Oil Dollars Now.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [An alternative to a boycott would give us greater leverage over the endgame.]   3-9-22
  193. Russia.  “How the U.S. Can Siphon Russia’s Oil Revenue.”  By Frank Fannon.  [To inflict maximum economic pain on Putin, eliminate his petroleum from global markets.]   3-9-22
  194. Russia.  “Russia’s Failure Is China’s Gain.”  By Seth Cropsey.  [This isn’t another cold war.  The world has become more dangerous than it’s been since World War II.   3-10-22
  195. Russia.  “If Putin Owes You Money, Good Luck Collecting It.”  By Jay Newman.  [The ruble’s collapse is only part of the problem.  The bond-contract terms lack basic creditor protections.]  3-10-22
  196. Russia.  “Russia’s War Gets Closer to NATO.”  [Putin is exploiting Biden’s red lines against U.S. involvement.]  3-14-22
  197. Russia.  “Would a Russian Coup Solve Anything?”  by John R. Deal.  [Putin’s successor would face the same political and geographic conditions that led him to confrontation.]   3-14-22
  198. Russia.  “Russia Can Hold Nickel Hostage.”  By Allysia Finley.  [If Putin cuts off supply of the metal, the electric-vehicle economy will sputter.]   3-15-22
  199. Russia.  “China and the Ukraine Stakes.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [The West isn’t yet using its full economic power on Beijing’s client Vladimir Putin.]  3-16-22
  200. Russia.  “Russian Withdrawal Isn’t Enough.”  By Bing West.  [Biden should tell NATO that sanctions will continue until Putin leaves power.]   3-21-22
  201. Russia.  “Same Russia, Different War.”  By Peggy Noonan.  [The story of TR and John Jay proves the aggression didn’t start with Putin, or even with communism.]  3-26-22
  202. Russia.  “How to Break Through Putin’s Propaganda in Russia.”  [Tell the truth about the fate of Russian soldiers, the kleptocrats and the 1999 apartment bombings.]   4-1-22
  203. Russia.  “Bucha Escalates Putin’s Risks.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [The Kremlin thought its energy revenues were safe, then war crimes intervened.]   4-6-22
  204. Russia.  “Putin’s Ukraine Invasion Is an Energy Heist.”  [The West can deny Russia access to markets while building up the trans-Atlantic oil and gas trade.]   4-6-22
  205. Russia.  “Barrack Obama Rewrites History.”  [His claim he was tough on Putin is contradicted by his eight-year record.]  4-9-22
  206. Russia.  “The End of Russia’s Empire?”  by Walter Russell Mead.  [Moscow has a stake in the Ukraine war that is greater than Putin’s career.]   4-19-22
  207. Russia.  “Vladimir Putin’s Gift to NATO.”  [The alliance is set to grow after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.]   4-20-22
  208. Russia.  “Handing Putin the Nuclear Advantage.”  [Biden wants to kill a cruise missile needed to deter Russia and others.]   4-21-22
  209. Russia.  “The U.N. Is an Enabler of Russian War Crimes.”  By Oleksii Reznikov.  [A permanent member of the Security Council invaded Ukraine.  The free world needs to fight back.]   4-22-22
  210. Russia.  “Russia Squeezes Kazakhstan.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [The US. should curb Moscow’s clout in its highly dependent and oil-rich neighbor.]   4-26-22
  211. Russia. “The Strategic Logic of Russia’s War on Ukraine.”  By Chris Blattman.  [Putin’s invasion was the product of miscalculation.  But his calculations were driven by realpolitik.]   4-26-22
  212. Russia.  “Russia’s Energy Extortion.”  [With more U.S. help for Europe, the ploy could boomerang on Putin.]   4-28-22
  213. Russia.  “Russia Isn’t a Military Stae, It’s a Delusional One.”  By Yulia Latynina.  [For all the talk of Putin’s mistakes, he was right in guessing that NATO won’t fight for Ukraine.”   5-2-22
  214. Russia.  “Another Cuban Missile Crisis?”  by Walter Russell Mead.  [With its echoes of the Cold War, Russia’s invasion has utterly altered world politics.]   5-3-22
  215. Russia.  “How Does Russia Lose?  Putin May Tell Us Monday.: by Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [If he would rather be defeated by NATO than Ukraine, his Victory Day speech may let us know.]    5-7-22
  216. Russia.  “For Russia, It’s All About the Benjamins.”  By Markos Kounalakis.   5-10-22
  217. Russia.  “This is No time to Go Wobbly on Russia.”  By Garry Kasparov.  [Appeasing Putin has cost the free world dearly.  We have an opportunity to rediscover our values.]  5-17-22
  218. Russia.  “Breaking Putin’s Food Blockade.  [A Black Sea mission to escort commercial ships may be needed.]   5-25-22
  219. Russia.  “Kissinger vs. Soros on Russia.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [The notable nonagenarians offer dueling visions of world order at the World Economic Forum.]   5-26-22
  220. Russia.  “My Russian Mother-in-Law Believes Putin.”  By Paul Podolsky.  [She thinks the war I Ukraine is justified.  They said so on TV.]  5-27-22
  221. Russia.  “Defeating Putin’s Food Blockade.”  [Ukraine’s wheat exports soon may rot without getting to market.]  6-3-22
  222. Russia.  “Communism Still Haunts Russia.”  By Robert D. Kaplan.  [Putin’s tyranny followed organically from the decade of anarchy kicked off by the Soviet collapse.]   6-9-22
  223. Russia.  “How to Stop Russia’s Plan for Food Chaos.”   By Seth Cropsey. [A naval coalition of the willing could ensure that Ukrainian grain is able to reach foreign ports.]   6-22-22
  224. Russia.  “Meet Natalia Zubarevich, a Russian Who Speaks Truth to Power.”  By Paul Roderick Gregory.  [She’s a podcast regular, running down the reasons sanctions are working despite Putin’s claims.]   6-28-22
  225. Russia.  “An Oil Price Cap for Russia?”  [Janet Yellen’s idea for a buyer’s cartel needs Putin’s cooperation.]  6-29-22
  226. Russia.  “Will Russia Pay for Ukraine’s War Damage?”  by Jillian Kay Melchior.  [The ruin is overwhelming but securing reparations will be legally and politically difficult.]   6-29-22
  227. Russia.  “Wokeness Is Putin’s Weapon.”  by Walter Russell Mead.  [Russia and China capitalize on the West’s moral and political confusion.]   7-12-22
  228. Russia.  “Russia’s Crimes of Colonialism.”  By Casey Michel.  [Its campaigns of conquest and subjugation were no less bloody for advancing overland not overseas.]   8-10-22
  229. Russia.  “Putin Blackmails Europe, Again.”  [The Kremlin hopes to thaw sanctions by freezing the Continent.]   8-23-22
  230. Russia.  “Putin’s Gas Threat Is a Bluff.”  By Paul Roderick Gregory and Ramanan Kristnamoorti.  [Russia’s reputation and economy both depend on keeping the Nord Stream pipeline operational.]   8-25-22
  231. Russia.  “Mikhail Gorbachev.”  [The Soviet reformer helped Reagan and Bush end the Cold War.]   8-31-22
  232. Russia.  “The Man Who almost Made Russia Democratic.”  By Wm.  Taubman.  [Mikhail Gorbachev tried to save the Soviet Union.  Instead he wound up hastening its destruction.]   8-31-22
  233. Russia.  “Gorbachev’s Undoing Was His Devotion to Soviet Ideas.”   By David Satter. [He was unable to preserve the Soviet ideological structure, but it wasn’t from lack of trying.]   9-1-22
  234. Russia.  “Russia’s Ukraine Setbacks.”  [Putin’s threats and scramble for arms show he’s under pressure.]   9-8-22
  235. Russia.  “What if Putin Uses a Nuke?”  by Walter Russell Mead.  [If he chooses the path of Khrushchev, President Biden needs to stand like JFK.]   9-13-22
  236. Russia.  “Putin, Nuclear Weapons and My Emailers.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [The maximum danger may be receding as the Russian media accept the possibility of defeat.]   10-8-22
  237. Russia.  “Vladimir Putin’s Cannon Fodder.”  10-18-22
  238. Russia.  “The Twilight of the Last Russian Empire.:  by Michael Khodarkovsky.  [In his aim to resurrect the Soviet Union, Mr. Putin may be presiding over his country’s final collapse.]  10-21-22
  239. Russia.  “As Winter Nears, the West May Save Putin.”  By Wm. A. Galston. [From Paris to Berlin, the coalition supporting Kyiv is under heavy strain.]   10-26-22
  240. Russia.  “Russia Resumes Its Food Blockade.”  [In response, the West could confiscate frozen Russian reserves.]   10-31-22
  241. Russia.  “A Supply-Side Defense Against Putin.”  By Thomas J. Duesterberg and David Asher.  [The most urgent policy shift is to promote energy production domestically and by reliable partners.]   11-7-22
  242. Russia.  “Fidel Gets A Statue in Moscow.  [Putin doesn’t have many friends these days, so he honors a dead one.]   11-29-22
  243. Russia.  “Putin Heists a Nation’s Identity.”  By Daniel Henninger.  [Americans debating who we are should look to Ukraine for what’s really at risk.]   12-8-22
  244. Russia.  “Putin Can’t Count on the global Oil Market.” By Daniel Yergin.  [The Russian ruler quotes Milton Friedman, but cuts in production could harm Russia and its allies.]   12-27-22
  245. Russia.  “China, Russia and the U.S. ‘Red Line.’”  [What will Biden do if Beijing sends military aid to Moscow?]   2-21-23
  246. Russia.  “Putin Re-Stalinizes Russia.”  By Joshua Rubenstein.  [Seventy years after the dictator’s death, he casts a grim shadow over the lands he dominated.]   3-4-23
  247. Russia.  “Russia Takes a Journalist Hostage.”  [The Kremlin arrests a WSJ reporter on phony espionage charges.]   3-31-23
  248. Russia.  “My time in a Moscow Prison.”  By Nicholas Daniloff.  [Like Even Gershkovich,. I was a reporter in 1986 when the KGB arrested me and accused me of spying.]   4-4-23
  249. Russia.  “Defeat Russia, then Make Friends.”  By jack Devine.  [The West neglected Moscow after the Cold War.  This will be another chance.]   4-12-23
  250. Russia.  “Russia Sows Far-Reaching Chaos Using Crimea as a Base.”  By S.C.M Paine.  [Arica and the Middle East would benefit if Ukraine retakes the key military port of Sevastopol.]   5-17-23
  251. Russia.  “What if Putin Loses His War?”  by Walter Russell Mead.  [Victory for Ukraine would recast Europe’s politics as well as the U.S – China rivalry.]   6-6-23
  252. Russia.  “The Riddle, Mystery and Enigma of Prigozhin’s Coup Attempt.”  By Gerard Baker.  [One thing is clear:  The U.S. was right to support Ukraine after Putin’s invasion last year.] 6-27-23
  253. Russia.  “From Russia With Talent.”  By John Fund.  6-28-23
  254. Russia.  “What Will Prigozhin’s Rebellion Mean?”  by Peggy Noonan.  [It’s probably too much to hope for Putin’s downfall, but his telling the truth about Ukraine will matter.]   7-1-23
  255. Russia.  “Russian’s Many Spies in Mexico.”  By Mary Anastasia O’Grady.  [Team Putin is quietly fueling antidemocratic ideology in the region.]   7-3-23
  256. Russia.  “Russia’s Nukes After Putin.”  By David C. Gompert.  [Prigozhin’s mutiny has the U.S. wondering if the 6,000 warheads would be secure in a shakeup.]   7-13-23
  257. Russia.  “Alexi Navalny gets Another 19 Years.]   8-8-23
  258. Russia.  “The Wagner Group in Africa Serves Putin’s Global Ambitions.”  By Zineh Riboua. [As in Syria in 2015, Russia’s intervention poses multiple dangers to the NATO alliance.]   8-8-23
  259. Russia.  “Putin, Proigozhin and Western Illusions.”  [The Wagner leader was Vladimir Putin’s most dangerous rival.]   8-24-23
  260. Russia.  “Yevgeny Prigozhin’s Assassination Was Inevitable.:  by Alexander Baynov. [Once Putin described the Wagner Group leader as a ‘traitor,’ his mafia state’s deadly logic required it.]  8-26-23Russia.  “The View From the Kremlin Isn’t All Bad.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [Putin has problems in Ukraine but is gaining in the Middle East, Africa and China.]   8-29-23
  261. Russia.  “Prigozhin Leaves Putin Weaker.”  By Holman w. Jenkins, Jr.  [The Kremlin kingpin is good at being a crime boss but failure as a war leader.]   8-30-23
  262. Russia.  “Putin’s North Korean Rendezvous.”  [The authoritarian axis will get stronger if Russia defeats Ukraine.]   9-6-23
  263. Russia.  “Putin Rewrites History to Justify His Dependence on China”  by Michael Khodarkovsky.  [In his latest revisionism, he lauds the Mongols to explain Russia’s rejection of Western ideas.]   11-25-23
  264. Russia.  “Evan Gershkovich Is Still in Prison.”  [What are the costs for imprisoning American journalists?]   11-29-23
  265. Russia.  “Alexei Navalny Lives.”  [Putin’s leading opponent is located in a remote Arctic prison.]   12-26-23
  266. Russia.  “The Example of Alexei Navalny’s Courage.  [Vladimir Putin thinks he can kill opponents, and knows he must.]   2-17-24
  267. Russia.  “Brave Tributes for Alexei Navalny.”   2-20-24
  268. Russia.  “How Russians and the West Failed Navalny.”  By Garry Kasparov.  [The dissident might still be alive if his countrymen showed the same courage that Ukrainians have.]   2-20-24
  269. Russia.  “The Moral Blindness of Putin’s Apologists on the Right.”  By Gerard Baker.  [They have embraced the moral equivalence that used to define the self-loathing left-wing elites.]   2-20-24
  270. Russia.  “How the West Enabled Putin.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [The murdered Alexei Navalny was his country’s best hope of resurrecting itself.]   2-28-24
  271. Russia.  “Putin Imprisons Another American.”  By Dora Chomiak.  [Ksenia Karelina is accused of reason for a small donation to my organization.]   3-1-24
  272. Russia.  “Putin Labels Me a ‘Terrorist.’”  By Tom Rogan.  [My commentary earned me a Russian arrest warrant.]   3-20-24
  273. Russia.  “A Revived ISIS Rampages in Moscow.”  [Putin will blame Ukraine to deflect from his security failure.]   3-25-24
  274. Russia.  “Moscow Attack:  Don’t Believe the Kremlin.”  By Garry Kasparov.  [In a heavily surveilled city, how could ISIS terrorists have killed for nearly an hour and driven away.]  3-25-24
  275. Russia.  “Propaganda and the Moscow Terror.”  By Holman W. Jenkins, Jr.  [The U.S. should do some truthful meddling in Russia’s politics.]   3-27-24
  276. Russia.  “Evan Gershkovich’s Year in Prison.”  [Putin believes there’s no downside to arresting Americans.]   3-27-24
  277. Russia.  “The Oil Weapon Against Moscow.”  By Andriy Yermak.  [In 1986 the U.S. and Saudi Arabia raised production.  That move contributed to the Soviet collapse.]   3-27-24
  278. Russia.  “Vladimir Putin Wants a Tax Hike.”  By Leon Aron.  [To fund the war in Ukraine, the 13% flat rate would give way to a progressive system.]   3-28-24
  279. Russia.  “Evan Gershkovicth Is Stronger Than Putin.”  By Gerard Baker.  [A state that is threatened by an honest journalist is exposing its own weakness, corruption and fragility.]   4-2-24
  280. Russia.  “What Would Russian Victory in Ukraine Look Like?”  by Seth G. Jones.  4-19-24
  281. Russia.  “How Putinism Spreads:  A Case Study.”  5-8-24
  282. Russia.  “Why Putin Seeks to Dominate Africa.”  By Walter Russell Mead.  [Moscow makes money and evades sanctions in a continent the U.S. disdains.]   5-14-24


Issue Headlines

Russia. 10-1-15:


Russia. Wall Street Journal 10-2-15. P. A1:

“Russian Airstrikes Aid Assad Bastion.” “Beirut – Russia’s first airstrikes in Syria showed a meticulously planned effort to eliminate any rebel threat to the coastal stronghold of Moscow ally President Bashar Al-Assad…”

Russia:     Syria mission demonstrates Russia’s new prowess:


Russia. “Russia’s Long Road to the Middle East.”  Sub:  Vladimir Putin’s intervention in Syria caught many by surprise, but it is a return to Russian geopolitical aspirations that stretch back to the czars. Wall Street Journal.  5-28-16 p. C1.

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